IBMの最初のマイクロプロセッサー IBM 801

1975年にIBMは、RISCの設計原理(RISC design principle)に基づくマイクロプロセッサーの開発を目的とした研究プロジェクトを開始した。最初は「RISCの父」と呼ばれるJohn Cockeが研究プロジェクトを指導した。

4K、 1M、4M DRAMの企業別市場シェア

4K、 1M、4M DRAMの企業別市場シェア
1975 1990 1992
4K DRAM 1M DRAM 4M DRAM
Intel 46% 東芝 22% Samsung 13%
Texas Instruments 25% Samsung 14% NEC 12%
Mostek 14% NEC 10% 日立 11%
NEC 4% 三菱 10% 東芝 11%
National 3% 日立 8% 富士通 9%

[出典] Gruber,H.(1998) “Learning by Doing and Spillovers: Further Evidence for the Semiconductor Industry.” Review of Industrial Organization, Vol.13, no.6

x86アーキテクチャのCPUの市場シェア関連資料

Albrecht, D. (2005) “AMD v. Intel: American Antitrust Law in the 21st Century” Engineering Law
2005年のAMDのIntelに対する訴訟(the 2005 AMD lawsuit against Intel)を取り扱ったもの

p.9 — 「過去数年間、Intelの売上高シェアは90%以上であり、AMDのシェアは約9%に留まっている。また最近8年間の内の7年間はx86マイクロプロセッサーの売上個数シェアはIntelが少なくとも80%を確保している。」
Point 25 in AMD‟s brief explains that “According to published reports, over the past several years it [Intel] has consistently achieved more than a 90% market share as measured by revenue, while AMD‟s share has remained at approximately 9%…Intel has captured at least 80% of x86 microprocessor unit sales in seven of the last eight years.”[注94] Per American Tobacco Co. v. Unites States, 80% market share constitutes monopoly.95 The 90% revenue figure also reveals a strong grip on the market, although the tests set forth in United States v. du Pont Co. and United States v. Aluminum Co. of America do not comment on the appropriateness of measuring market share by revenue versus of units shipped. In either case, it is hard to deny that Intel‟s 80% or more share of the x86 processor market is monopolistic in character. AMD‟s brief did not specify the sources of their market data, but the factual nature of AMD‟s monopoly claim combined with the well-settled tests for monopoly will be easy to confirm or deny after a thorough discovery process.

[注94]
Black, Henry Campbell, M.A., with Nolan, Joseph R., Associate Justice, Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and Nolan-Haley, Jacqueline M., Associate Clinical Professor, Fordham University School of Law. Black‟s Law Dictionary. Abridged Sixth Edition. West Publishing Company, 1991,p.10

IBM5100のCPU – IBM PALM processor (Put All Logic in Microcode)

IBM5100(1975)はIBMのデスクトップコンピュータであり、そのCPUがPALMプロセッサである。PALMプロセッサはIBM5110(1978),IBM5120(1980)でも用いられている。

PALMプロセッサは1チップのCPUではなく、複数のICから構成されているカード型CPU(single-card microprocessor)である。すなわち、13個の正方形のICチップ(バイポーラゲートアレイ)、3個のTTL(Transistor-Transistor-Logic,バイポーラトランジスタ)、1個のround metal canから構成されている回路板(circuit board)である。

Roberson(1976)によれば、PALMプロセッサのマイクロ命令(microinstruction)は16ビット長で、パリティ用に追加の2ビットを持っている。64KBのメモリ空間

IBMはPALMプロセッサをmicroprocessorと呼んでいるが、これはmicrocodeを利用したマイクロプラグラム方式のプロセッサーという意味である。

カラー写真は下記にある。
http://www.classiccmp.org/dunfield/ibm5100/h/card5100.jpg

またPALMプロセッサに関する解説としては下記がある。
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PALM_processor

IBM5100に関する解説およびPALMプロセッサのモノクロ写真は下記論文にある
Roberson,Dennis A. (1976) “A Microprocessor-Based Portable Computer: The IBM 5100”
 Proceedings of the IEEE, VOL. 64, NO. 6, JUNE 1976,pp.994-

PCの定義をめぐる議論

IBM社のコンピュータ関連資料 — マニュアル等

IBM360,IBM5100などIBM社のさまざまなコンピュータのマニュアル等の資料を下記からダウンロードできる。
http://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/

なおIBMのtypewriter関連資料もダウンロードできる。
http://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/typewriter/

マイクロプロセッサー関連資料 - 売上高シェア1977,1981,1890,1995

Market shares in microprocessorspercent of sales in US dollars.

米国ドル換算によるマイクロプロセッサー市場の売上高シェア1977,1981,1890,1995
         
Firms 8bit 16bit 32bit 32/64bit
(1977) (1981) (1990) (1995)
Intel 65% 70% 60% 77%
Motorola N/A 20% 21% 5%
AMD 1% 7%
Cyrix/IBM 5%
Other 10% 18% 6%
[出典] Gruber, H. (2000) “The evolution of market structure in semiconductors: the role of product standards,” Research Policy,29, p.735
[原出所] ICE

 

Market shares of generations in microprocessors and microcontrollers in 1987 and 1996percent of sales value in US dollars.

米国ドル換算によるマイクロプロセッサーおよびマイクロコントローラー市場の売上高シェア
         
  1987 1996
  Microprocessors Microcontrollers Microprocessors Microcontrollers
4-bit 0 28 0 15
8-bit 31 67 1 61
16-bit 44 5 2 24
32-bit 25   97  
Total 100 100 100 100
Microprocessors 1996の32bitの中には64-bit microprocessorsにも含まれている。
[出典]Gruber, H. (2000) “The evolution of market structure in semiconductors: the role of product standards,” Research Policy,29, p.737
[原出所]ICE

Mooreの法則関連資料

Moore,G.E.(1965) “Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits,” Electronics, Volume 38, Number 8, April 19, 1965
ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Articles-press_Releases/
 
Moore,G.E.(1975) “Progress In Digital Integrated Electronics,”Technical Digest 1975. International Electron Devices Meeting, IEEE, 1975, pp. 11-13.
ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Articles-press_Releases/Gordon_Moore_1965_Article.pdf

Moore,G.E.(1995) “Lithography and the Future of Moore’s Law,” Proc. SPIE, Vol. 2437, May 1995
ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Articles-press_Releases/1995_SPIE_Speech.pdf

Intel (2004) “Intel Drives Moore’s Law Forward with 65 Nanometer Process Technology,” Santa Clara, California, August 30, 2004
ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Articles-press_Releases/Press_Release_Aug2004.pdf

Intel (2005) “Innovation More Important Than Ever In Platform Era,” Intel Developer Forum, San Francisco,March 1, 2005
ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Articles-press_Releases/Press_Release_Mar2005.pdf

Stanford大学におけるApple関連文書ガイド

Guide to the Apple Computer, Inc. Records, 1977-1998
http://www.oac.cdlib.org/data/13030/n3/tf4t1nb0n3/files/tf4t1nb0n3.pdf
http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/spc/xml/m1007.xml
Repository: Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
Creator: Apple Computer, Inc.
Title: Apple Computer, Inc. Records,
Dates: 1977-1998
Extent: ca. 600 linear ft.
Abstract: Collection contains organizational charts, annual reports, company directories, internal communications, engineering reports, design materials, press releases, manuals, public relations materials, human resource information, videotapes, audiotapes, software, hardware, and corporate memorabilia. Also includes information regarding the Board of Directors and their decisions.
Collection number: Special Collections M1007

 

Guide to the Apple Computer, Inc. Ephemera collection, 1978 – 1998
http://www.oac.cdlib.org/data/13030/32/ft48700332/files/ft48700332.pdf
http://findingaids.stanford.edu/xtf/view?docId=ead/mss/m0825.xml 
Repository: Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
Creator: Apple Computer, Inc.
Title: Apple Computer, Inc. ephemera collection,
Dates: 1978 – 1998
Extent: 9 linear ft.
Abstract: This collection contains annual reports, internal communications, corporate communications, engineering reports, manuals, product information files, catalogs, price lists, Apple publications, human resource information, conference and workshop information, software, hardware, and corporate memorabilia.
Collection number: M0825
Language: English.

Computer史関連サイト

コンピュータ史関連サイト

Jeremy Meyers,A Short History of the Computer(B.C.-A.D.1993)

http://www.softlord.com/comp/

The Computer History Museum, Virtual Visible Storage
http://www.computerhistory.org/VirtualVisibleStorage

Digibarn Computer Museum
>http://www.digibarn.com/collections/

The IEEE Computer Society timeline
初期コンピュータの画像を含む
Computer History Web Sites
Computer Industry History
the Electronic Software Publishing Corporationによる歴史的ページへのリンク集
A timeline starting 50BC focusing on industry is maintained at Bull in France.
A timeline of computer history events is available from ComputerHope, with many entries for Apple, Windows, and Unix.
A focus on Canadian Computing is maintained by Zbigniew at York University.
The Deutsches Museum in Munich has an extensive computer section, with some pictures of their large collection of early mathematical instruments.
The University in Erlangen also displays on the floors of its department a collection of their historical old computers (incl. a Zuse Z23 from 1962), components, computing instruments, and graphics.
Computing in The Netherlands is shown in a military museum and at the Computer Museum at the Vrije Universiteit which shows, among other, paper tape and analog computers.The Vintage collection

The impressive museum on office technology started by Heinz Nixdorf in Paderborn, Germany,
The Electronics Museum in San Jose, CA
The Nerds’ Timeline “The Triumph of the Nerds”.
Smithsonian
The History of Computers a computer-meeting company
A site, “Computers: History and Development, from Jones Knowledge, which focused on hardware, but closed down in 2006.
IBM’s museum is now on line, as the Antique attic, vol.1, vol.2, and vol. 3.
Interesting pictures of antique instruments for sale are found at The Gemmary, Antique Scientific Instruments, Old & Rare Books.
Folklore of computing, at Monash Univ.
Bletchley Park, Enigma and Colussus site, where Turing worked during WW II.
A glossary of terms used in the MIT Multics literature, generally useful for old computer stuff (1965-1975). Also list of their people; some S-1 references.

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